Soil tests for foundation laying

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Soil testing is done to ensure that the soil is perfect for foundations for superstructure. The strong foundation ensures that superstructure or buildings build on them are firm and strong.  The strength of the building depends on the strength of the foundation. The soil testing is done to know the existing conditions of soil and it’s characteristic to construct a suitable foundation to match the soil.

The type of soil testing needed can be determined by correlation of soil characteristics, which are taken from soil investigation reports, and tests from projects constructed.  This soil testing results will determine the size, length, depth and capacity of the foundation being done for buildings.

If it is not possible to get the reliable data about piles or foundation, in the area, it can be taken by making a test pile and correlate with soil data. The tests which are conducted may include:

Types of soil tests –

Standard penetration test is done to know the point of friction between soil and pile or foundation. This also gives the friction or resistance given by each layer of soil to the pile

Static cone penetration is done to know the cohesion and subsequently, adhesion, of soft cohesive soils. It is also done to know the standard penetration test results for fine to medium sands. The static cone penetration test and standard penetration test is needed for both cohesive less and cohesive soil .Vane shear test reserved for clayey soils.

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The ground water condition and permeability of soil is measured to know the type of foundation that can be constructed in the soil .The level of water in the bore is noted in the bore log. Because of low permeability of the soil, the water in the bore can rise to the water table level in several days.

The ground water tests Cement testing equipment manufacturer in Delhi are done to known the chemical effect on the concrete and pile. The cone penetration test for the same soil can come with substantial scatter. That is why; they are checked with information obtained from other tests or exploration methods.

Soil Test Equipment Suppliers in India

By all these methods of soil testing, Soil test equipment suppliers in India if soil is not found suitable for the construction or it is of poor bearing capacity or filed with subsoil, then engineers have to take the decision to move the foundation laying somewhere else. They can also remove the poor soil and replace it with good compacted soil. The engineers can also improve the bearing capacity of the soil. But all these methods to improve the soil can delay the construction.

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS USED FOR EARTHWORK

Construction equipment suppliers in India

Construction activity of any kind starts with digging the earth and making the way for construction of foundation. The various equipments are used for earth work. Use of each of these equipments depends on the nature of work to be done.

Backhoe tractors are on the wheels or tracks and have backhoe at the end of the arm, which can be extended from the tube for work. The backhoe works on the hydraulic pressure. The digging is done from the short distance of the machine towards the machine. The depth of the digging depends on the length of the arm and depth to which its blades can go.

Loading shovel is similar to backhoe tractor but the only different is that the arm of the loading shovel extends upward and lifts the material for loading into bumper trucks.  The loading shovels operate on tracked chain and can be taken to any surface during loading. The track chain gives it stability during lifting and loadings. The machine comes in various sizes and capacities.

Graders are used to spread the mud over the surface evenly and finely trim the subgades. They consists a blade which is wide and can be lifted or moved forward through hydraulic cranes at the two ends of the blade. The front wheels of the graders are articulated, while the rear wheels are ser under the control unit and motor unit.

Construction equipment suppliers in India

Dumper trucks Construction equipment suppliers in India are widely used for their carrying loose material for construction site. They have back carriage, which can be uplifted by the hydraulic cranes to dump the material loaded on the trucks. These trucks vary in capacity from one ton to 80 ton. The choice of the particular dumper truck depends on the material quantity to be carried. Some dumper trucks have back carriages that can be tilted toward the sides to unload the loose material.  The speed of the unloading is very fast in dumper trucks as they do not have any gate at the end of the back bumper. The slightly lifted portion of the back end keeps loose material inside the truck.

Bulldozer is a tracker with front blades that are raised and lowered as per the requirement of the job .The bulldozers use tracks and can be very stable for the job. They are used for heavy lifts. The tracks allow bulldozers to move on variety of ground surface easily. Some bulldozers come with blades, which push away materials to sides as bulldozer moves.

Before the start of the construction, Laboratory equipment suppliers in Delhi civil or geothermal engineers test for soil for its suitability for construction. The soil testing can be done on the spot with right equipments or in a laboratory.

Laboratory equipment suppliers in Delhi, Laboratory Testing Equipments Manufacturer in India

TYPES OF TRUCKS AND LOADERS USED IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

untitled-2 Loaders and trucks are used to lift heavy machinery or loose materials used at the construction site. The trucks are used to carry materials like cements, iron loads or other such materials. The loaders along with cranes are used for lifting, and carrying heavy items from one place to other site of the construction site.

Types of trucks

Dump trucks are used for taking loose materials like sand, gravel or mud to the construction sites. These trucks have hydraulic cylinders fitted under the carriage to lift the carriage and unload all material at once in one go. These trucks can come in different configuration for different. Some trucks carry the dumping carriage with loose materials. The separate carriage has its own wheels but it is not fitted with any engine. The biggest advantage of this type of truck is that maximum load can be added without any affect on the maneuverability of the truck

Semi trailer end dump truck is combination of trailer and tractor. The trailer has hydraulic cylinders for dumping the loose material. This type of combination has advantage in rapid unloading the loose material.

The side dump trucks have facility to dump the material on the either left or right side. They do this by hydraulic ramps that title the body onto any side.  These trucks often carry more loose material than other trucks.

Construction equipment suppliers in India

Loaders  

The loaders are Construction equipment suppliers in India  tractors with wheels and a square tilt bucket at the front end for lifting any material and carrying to short distance within the construction site. The front end is fitted with cylindrical arms for lifting and shifting the material or cements slabs.

Some loaders such as caterpillars have only front buckets and are known as front loaders. Some small front loaders are fitted with backhoe. These loaders are used for clearing way, removing debris, putting materials into trucks   or laying pipes etc. loaders are fitted with wheels for faster mobility within construction area.

Fork lifters

These are used by fitting small but heavy items or cartons by inserting the steel plates under the load. The plates are fitted in front of the wheel truck with driver’s seat. The fork lifters come in various sizes and capacities to serve the purpose of the client in construction industry.

Soil Test Equipment Suppliers in India, 2. Soil testing equipment manufacturers in India

Soil testing before Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India construction of any building is essential to determine the capacity of the soil for construction of foundation of the building. The depth of the foundation depends on the building to be constructed on it and type of soil.

 

Benefits of soil testing to farmers

Over the decades the practice of soil testing has been accepted by the farmer community for getting complete knowledge of the soil for better yield and increased production per hectare. The increase in profit because of increase production motivates all land owners to hold soil testing. For proper soil testing, it is important that soil samples from various parts of the field or farm are taken and then mixed to get the genuine sample of that area.

Soil testing report will give exact fertilizer requirements to farmers. They will come to know the quantity of various fertilizers and nutrients both major and minor needed for the soil type. The water content is the soil is also determined by soil testing. This gives indication of the use of water needed for the particular crop. The low use of fertilizer reduces the crop yield and high use may damage the crop and also leads to waste of time and money for the former. It is also damages the environment due to runoff.

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Thus, a farmer gets complete farm management tool to increase production, manage inputs accordingly, and control the damage to environment.  The additional benefits are improvement in crop quality and maturity, high resistance to pet control, and use of effective pet resistance substance according to the soil type.

The application of limestone use can be known better with the use of soil testing on acid soils. The testing gives exact requirement for the limestone use. The soil testing can be done before the start of the cropping season, that can be in spring or start of the fall. The cost of soil testing is relatively soil test equipment suppliers in India low compared with cost of fertilizers and limestone, which keeps the overall expenses of a farmer low during crop season.

The reliable soil testing results depend on many factors such as method of taking soil for testing , steps involved  in testing ,  techniques used for mixing samples of soil  and fertilizers recommendation guidelines . Since levels of various nutrients in the soil cannot be visible seen, the use of professional soil testing analyst is important to expose the lack of various nutrients in a soil. The capability and desirability of a soil type for any particular crop can also be found by the soil testing methods.

The equipments Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India used in soil testing locally available. These include sand pouring cylinder, soil cone penetrometer, and speedy moisture meter.

Need for soil testing and method of taking soil sample

Soil testing is done to know the level of fertility of the soil and excess and lack of major or minor nutrients.  Then after analyses of the soil sample, the various fertilizers are then added as per the requirement of the particular crop that is being planned on the land. A soil test also reveals the soil ph value, humus matter, and exchangeable acidity. The test will show how much lime is needed. With the help of soil testing, the farmer of gardener knows the right amount of fertilizer that is needed. This testing prevents the over dose of any nutrient of the soil.

In case a farmer is not aware of the soil ph in the soil. He may increase the ph value by adding more lime to the soil. This increase of ph may lead to decrease in value of iron, magnesium, copper and zinc to plants.

The soil testing also is environmentally friendly. The over use of fertilizers makes them go to underground water and will run off with rain water. The correct use of fertilizer thus saves the groundwater from pollution and environment from damage.  Also growers of fine tobacco, usually use phosphorus in the soil. But if the level of phosphorus is already high, then there is no need for adding phosphorus to soil.

soil

Some precautions have to be taken at the time of taking soil sample. The first is that the soils have to be Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India taken by shovels, hand garden trowel, or spade. The use of brass, galvanized steel or bronze should not be used for taking soil. The use of these materials will contaminate the soil sample and correct reading of the soil sample will not come.  The soil sample should be collected in clean plastic bags. The bucket should also be clean. The bucket which is already used for any fertilizer or materials should be washed thoroughly before putting soil sample in it. For correct analyses, it is essential that the soil sample is without any contamination.

Each sample should represent only one soil type. And for large areas, the sample should be taken from different points in the field or garden. For taking sample of a large field, the sub sample from different points should be taken and then they can be made into one sample. If one part of the land seems fertile and other barren land, then the soil sample from them should be taken separately.

The depth at which the soil sample is different from crop to crop and it have to be at least from 4 to 6 inch. The sub samples have to be mixed thoroughly for one soil sample. The government has established various Construction equipment suppliers in India centers for the farmers to get soil sample before planting crops. The scientific way of using soil ensures the good yield with keeping the fertility of the soil intact.

Need for soil testing and taking soil sample

A soil sample testing helps farmers know the level of nutrients in the soil. This knowledge then allows them to add some more nutrients to get the desired soil. The testing also shows weakness in the soil nutrients level, which farmers the tries to remove by adding the appropriate fertilizers. Technically speaking the soil testing provides knowledge about two vital aspects of the soil.

The first is the soil ph. This is the measurement from low ph to high ph. The low ph is called acid and high ph is known as alkaline. This information gives the kind of yield that will come from the soil. Second, the nutrient levels in the soil. The presence or lack of major nutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium give indication of fertility of the soil. In the same way, the amount of micronutrients can help to get the exact nature of the soil.

In addition to these major indicators, some specialized soil analysis can help to determine the other factors that also have major say in the yield from that soil. These factors are salinity level of soil and nitrogen presence.  Soil salinity can come in coastal areas and in soil with lot of fertilizers use. The lack of nitrogen means that nitrogen has to be added to the soil to get the good crop. Similarly presence of organic matter is also determined by special soil analysis. The addition of organic matter improves the fertility of the soil. The amount of aluminum in soil can be toxic to plants, so analysis to prevent the aluminum increase in soil also helps a farmer.

These samples are done only when some problems are observed by the farmer or there are some reasons to get the analysis of the soil for better crop yield.

It is important that proper sample of the soil is taken for accurate analysis of the soil testing.  The testing is done on the tiny fraction of the soil that represents the entire stretch of the soil for which is testing is needed. Therefore it is necessary that the sample has to reflect the entire filed or farm.

If there is difference in Compressive strength testing machine supplier the soil from the same area, the separate analysis of the each segment of the soil has to be taken.  If soil gives two different colors in same field or plant of land, then again, the different soil testing has to be done.

For accurate reading the Soil test equipment suppliers in India each sample of soil should have combination of 5 to 10 subsample of soil from the same areas, for which soil testing is needed.  There are lots of soil testing equipments. Each one is used for specific purpose. Some are used to test the sand content of the soil.  There is also an equipment to determine the moisture level of the soil.

Common Laboratory Equipments Used in India

Laboratory testing equipment used for measures various qualities of substances in the laboratory. They can be used to measures the soil quality, water quality, gas pressures among many other things. Some of the commonly used laboratory equipments are described here.

Laboratory Thermometers such as dial thermometers, digital thermometer, glass thermometers and dial type thermometers are used to measure the temperature of the soil, concrete or asphalt,  in laboratory. These thermometers are available in different sizes and range to meet the demand in any testing. These thermometers can be portable, give accurate measurements and are easy to maintain.

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Hot air ovens are electrically operated and controlled by thermostat. They have stainless steel internal chamber, while external body is made of mild steel sheet or stainless steel sheet. There is glass wool insulation between the chambers. The temperature is controlled by hydraulic thermostat, which can go up to 250 ‘C. The L shaped thermometer is fitted with the hot oven gives the temperature reading.

Electronic balances are used in weighing samples of various materials like soil, concrete, asphalt or materials used by education lab, civil engineering lab or filed lab. These balances come in different sizes, types and weighting ranges for testing need of customers.

Then there are proving rings, which are made from special steel and are carefully forged to give high stable accuracy, repeatability and dependability. The dial gauges are fitted on the U brackets, which in turn are clamped to the rings by set screws.  The gauge has very high sensitivity and provides accurate reading. The sensitivity is up to 0.002mm /div and the deflection is directly proportional to the weight applied .The whole unit of rings and dial gauge comes with works calibrations chart.

Universal fittings are hoses and adapters used for transferring fluids for testing to test containers. They are reliable and flexible. The hoses with knurled handwheels are connected without the use of wrenches.  The hoses with hexagon connection need wrench to tighten.   Some connecting hoses come with knurled hand wheel and electrically hose. Flexible hose comes with stainless steel and is lined with nylon.

Reid vapor pressure cylinder is Laboratory equipment suppliers in Delhi used for testing the gases like liquefied petroleum gases and gasoline. Some non pressure types Reid vapor pressure cylinder is used for testing samples at atmosphere pressures. Some other pressure cylinders are used to test the samples, which are handled at greater pressure than atmosphere pressure. Similarly these can also be used to know the pressure of liquefied petroleum gases.

Generally, the construction manufacturers Construction equipment suppliers in India and laboratory testing equipment makers are same. Some heavy construction equipments like cranes used in various states of construction can be taken on rent. These cranes and other construction equipments are supplied by the companies, which don’t manufacture them but keep them for rent for construction companies.

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