Soil testing and procedure for taking the soil samples for testing

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Soil testing is done to know the contents of the soil before plantation. The major nutrients of the soil and lack of nay nutrient is determined by the testing the soil taken from different parts of the same plot or land. In other words, the soil testing is the process by which chemical compounds of the soil such as phosphorus, sodium sulfur, copper and zinc are tested for their availability or lack of availability. The level of nutrients in the soil or lack of them will then decide how much fertilizer is to be added in the soil before the starting plantation of the any crop.

How soil sample is taken?

The soil for sample for testing should be taken at the right time and in the right quantity. The use of tools , area of soil where the samples are taken , correct mix of various part of the soil and the depth at which the soil was taken from testing , all influence the result of the sample testing .The best time for taking soil testing is few months before planting new crop. The few months’ gaps give adequate time to adjust the ph of the soil for new crop.

The tools should also be selected carefully for the soil digging and taking samples. The spade, hand trowel for Soil test equipment suppliers in India garden, and shovel can be used for taking soil samples. The use of brass, galvanized steel or bronze should not be done because these items can contaminate the soil sample with zinc or copper.

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The sample should be collected from various part of the land or plot. Almost every area should have soil in the sample.  The soil taken from different areas should be mixed well before forming one sample. If land is big, then sampling from one side of the land, should contains at least five to six soil samples from that side. These samples can be mixed well to represent the one sample from one part of the land. Similarly, the other parts of the land can also be represented in the soil sampling and then all samples taken from different areas of the same land are mixed to form the one sample.  The depth of the soil, for the sample collection, depends on the activity for which the land is going to be used. The depth may vary for vegetables, fruits, or other crops.

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After collecting the soil for sample, it should be put in a clear plastic bag. The plastic bag should not have any Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India chemical or fertilizer in it before being used for soil sampling. The traces of any chemical or fertilizer will not give correct information about the soil testing results.

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Soil tests for foundation laying

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Soil testing is done to ensure that the soil is perfect for foundations for superstructure. The strong foundation ensures that superstructure or buildings build on them are firm and strong.  The strength of the building depends on the strength of the foundation. The soil testing is done to know the existing conditions of soil and it’s characteristic to construct a suitable foundation to match the soil.

The type of soil testing needed can be determined by correlation of soil characteristics, which are taken from soil investigation reports, and tests from projects constructed.  This soil testing results will determine the size, length, depth and capacity of the foundation being done for buildings.

If it is not possible to get the reliable data about piles or foundation, in the area, it can be taken by making a test pile and correlate with soil data. The tests which are conducted may include:

Types of soil tests –

Standard penetration test is done to know the point of friction between soil and pile or foundation. This also gives the friction or resistance given by each layer of soil to the pile

Static cone penetration is done to know the cohesion and subsequently, adhesion, of soft cohesive soils. It is also done to know the standard penetration test results for fine to medium sands. The static cone penetration test and standard penetration test is needed for both cohesive less and cohesive soil .Vane shear test reserved for clayey soils.

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The ground water condition and permeability of soil is measured to know the type of foundation that can be constructed in the soil .The level of water in the bore is noted in the bore log. Because of low permeability of the soil, the water in the bore can rise to the water table level in several days.

The ground water tests Cement testing equipment manufacturer in Delhi are done to known the chemical effect on the concrete and pile. The cone penetration test for the same soil can come with substantial scatter. That is why; they are checked with information obtained from other tests or exploration methods.

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By all these methods of soil testing, Soil test equipment suppliers in India if soil is not found suitable for the construction or it is of poor bearing capacity or filed with subsoil, then engineers have to take the decision to move the foundation laying somewhere else. They can also remove the poor soil and replace it with good compacted soil. The engineers can also improve the bearing capacity of the soil. But all these methods to improve the soil can delay the construction.

TYPES OF TRUCKS AND LOADERS USED IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

untitled-2 Loaders and trucks are used to lift heavy machinery or loose materials used at the construction site. The trucks are used to carry materials like cements, iron loads or other such materials. The loaders along with cranes are used for lifting, and carrying heavy items from one place to other site of the construction site.

Types of trucks

Dump trucks are used for taking loose materials like sand, gravel or mud to the construction sites. These trucks have hydraulic cylinders fitted under the carriage to lift the carriage and unload all material at once in one go. These trucks can come in different configuration for different. Some trucks carry the dumping carriage with loose materials. The separate carriage has its own wheels but it is not fitted with any engine. The biggest advantage of this type of truck is that maximum load can be added without any affect on the maneuverability of the truck

Semi trailer end dump truck is combination of trailer and tractor. The trailer has hydraulic cylinders for dumping the loose material. This type of combination has advantage in rapid unloading the loose material.

The side dump trucks have facility to dump the material on the either left or right side. They do this by hydraulic ramps that title the body onto any side.  These trucks often carry more loose material than other trucks.

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Loaders  

The loaders are Construction equipment suppliers in India  tractors with wheels and a square tilt bucket at the front end for lifting any material and carrying to short distance within the construction site. The front end is fitted with cylindrical arms for lifting and shifting the material or cements slabs.

Some loaders such as caterpillars have only front buckets and are known as front loaders. Some small front loaders are fitted with backhoe. These loaders are used for clearing way, removing debris, putting materials into trucks   or laying pipes etc. loaders are fitted with wheels for faster mobility within construction area.

Fork lifters

These are used by fitting small but heavy items or cartons by inserting the steel plates under the load. The plates are fitted in front of the wheel truck with driver’s seat. The fork lifters come in various sizes and capacities to serve the purpose of the client in construction industry.

Soil Test Equipment Suppliers in India, 2. Soil testing equipment manufacturers in India

Soil testing before Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India construction of any building is essential to determine the capacity of the soil for construction of foundation of the building. The depth of the foundation depends on the building to be constructed on it and type of soil.

 

Benefits of soil testing to farmers

Over the decades the practice of soil testing has been accepted by the farmer community for getting complete knowledge of the soil for better yield and increased production per hectare. The increase in profit because of increase production motivates all land owners to hold soil testing. For proper soil testing, it is important that soil samples from various parts of the field or farm are taken and then mixed to get the genuine sample of that area.

Soil testing report will give exact fertilizer requirements to farmers. They will come to know the quantity of various fertilizers and nutrients both major and minor needed for the soil type. The water content is the soil is also determined by soil testing. This gives indication of the use of water needed for the particular crop. The low use of fertilizer reduces the crop yield and high use may damage the crop and also leads to waste of time and money for the former. It is also damages the environment due to runoff.

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Thus, a farmer gets complete farm management tool to increase production, manage inputs accordingly, and control the damage to environment.  The additional benefits are improvement in crop quality and maturity, high resistance to pet control, and use of effective pet resistance substance according to the soil type.

The application of limestone use can be known better with the use of soil testing on acid soils. The testing gives exact requirement for the limestone use. The soil testing can be done before the start of the cropping season, that can be in spring or start of the fall. The cost of soil testing is relatively soil test equipment suppliers in India low compared with cost of fertilizers and limestone, which keeps the overall expenses of a farmer low during crop season.

The reliable soil testing results depend on many factors such as method of taking soil for testing , steps involved  in testing ,  techniques used for mixing samples of soil  and fertilizers recommendation guidelines . Since levels of various nutrients in the soil cannot be visible seen, the use of professional soil testing analyst is important to expose the lack of various nutrients in a soil. The capability and desirability of a soil type for any particular crop can also be found by the soil testing methods.

The equipments Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India used in soil testing locally available. These include sand pouring cylinder, soil cone penetrometer, and speedy moisture meter.

Need for soil testing and method of taking soil sample

Soil testing is done to know the level of fertility of the soil and excess and lack of major or minor nutrients.  Then after analyses of the soil sample, the various fertilizers are then added as per the requirement of the particular crop that is being planned on the land. A soil test also reveals the soil ph value, humus matter, and exchangeable acidity. The test will show how much lime is needed. With the help of soil testing, the farmer of gardener knows the right amount of fertilizer that is needed. This testing prevents the over dose of any nutrient of the soil.

In case a farmer is not aware of the soil ph in the soil. He may increase the ph value by adding more lime to the soil. This increase of ph may lead to decrease in value of iron, magnesium, copper and zinc to plants.

The soil testing also is environmentally friendly. The over use of fertilizers makes them go to underground water and will run off with rain water. The correct use of fertilizer thus saves the groundwater from pollution and environment from damage.  Also growers of fine tobacco, usually use phosphorus in the soil. But if the level of phosphorus is already high, then there is no need for adding phosphorus to soil.

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Some precautions have to be taken at the time of taking soil sample. The first is that the soils have to be Soil Testing Equipment Manufacturers in India taken by shovels, hand garden trowel, or spade. The use of brass, galvanized steel or bronze should not be used for taking soil. The use of these materials will contaminate the soil sample and correct reading of the soil sample will not come.  The soil sample should be collected in clean plastic bags. The bucket should also be clean. The bucket which is already used for any fertilizer or materials should be washed thoroughly before putting soil sample in it. For correct analyses, it is essential that the soil sample is without any contamination.

Each sample should represent only one soil type. And for large areas, the sample should be taken from different points in the field or garden. For taking sample of a large field, the sub sample from different points should be taken and then they can be made into one sample. If one part of the land seems fertile and other barren land, then the soil sample from them should be taken separately.

The depth at which the soil sample is different from crop to crop and it have to be at least from 4 to 6 inch. The sub samples have to be mixed thoroughly for one soil sample. The government has established various Construction equipment suppliers in India centers for the farmers to get soil sample before planting crops. The scientific way of using soil ensures the good yield with keeping the fertility of the soil intact.